Victims of Crimes

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Monday, July 23, 2012

Abuse of Human Rights in Housing Under The Law in the Village of Lombard, DuPage County, Illinois USA

Abuse of Human Rights in Housing Under The Law in the Village of Lombard, DuPage County, Illinois USA According to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, International human rights law recognizes everyone’s right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate housing. Despite the central placeof this right within the global legal system, well over a billion people are not adequately housed. Millions around the world live in life- or health-threatening conditions, in overcrowded slums and informal settlements, or in other conditions which do not uphold their human rights and their dignity. Further millions are forcibly evicted, or threatened with forced eviction, from their homes every year. Adequate housing was recognized as part of the right to an adequate standard of living in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Other international human rights treaties have since recognized or referred to the right to adequate housing or some elements of it, such as the protection of one’s home and privacy. The right to adequate housing is relevant to all States, as they have all ratified at least one international treaty referring to adequate housing and committed themselves to protecting the right to adequate housing through international declarations, plans of action or conference outcome documents. Several constitutions protect the right to adequate housing or outline the State’s general responsibility to ensure adequate housing and living conditions for all. Courts from various legal systems have also adjudicated cases related to its enjoyment, covering, for instance, forced evictions, tenant protection, discrimination in the housing sphere or access to basic housing-related services. Increased international attention has also been paid to the right to adequate housing, including by human rights treaty bodies, regional human rights mechanisms and the Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council), which created the mandate of “Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living” in 2000. These initiatives have helped to clarify the scope and content of the right to adequate housing. This Fact Sheet starts by explaining what the right to adequate housing is, illustrates what it means for specific individuals and groups, and then elaborates upon States’ related obligations. It concludes with an overview of national, regional and international accountability and monitoring mechanisms. 2 This joint OHCHR/UN-Habitat Fact Sheet is the second in a series of joint publications by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights with other United Nations partners to focus on economic, social and cultural rights. The first was the Fact Sheet on the Right to Health, issued jointly with the World Health Organization, and a joint fact sheet with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on the right to food is forthcoming. 3 I. WHAT IS THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE HOUSING? A. Key aspects of the right to adequate housing The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has underlined that the right to adequate housing should not be interpreted narrowly. Rather, it should be seen as the right to live somewhere in security, peace and dignity. The characteristics of the right to adequate housing are clarified mainly in the Committee’s general comments No. 4 (1991) on the right to adequate housing and No. 7 (1997) on forced evictions.1 • The right to adequate housing contains freedoms. These freedoms include:  Protection against forced evictions and the arbitrary destruction and demolition of one’s home;  The right to be free from arbitrary interference with one’s home, privacy and family; and  The right to choose one’s residence, to determine where to live and to freedom of movement. • The right to adequate housing contains entitlements. These entitlements include:  Security of tenure;  Housing, land and property restitution;  Equal and non-discriminatory access to adequate housing;  Participation in housing-related decision-making at the national and community levels. • Adequate housing must provide more than four walls and a roof. A number of conditions must be met before particular forms of shelter can be considered to constitute “adequate housing.” These elements are just as fundamental as the basic supply and availability of housing. For housing to be adequate, it must, at a minimum, meet the following criteria: 1 General comments are adopted by the treaty bodies based on their monitoring experience. They offer expert guidance to States on their obligations arising under a particular treaty. 4  Security of tenure: housing is not adequate if its occupants do not have a degree of tenure security which guarantees legal protection against forced evictions, harassment and other threats.  Availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure: housing is not adequate if its occupants do not have safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, energy for cooking, heating, lighting, food storage or refuse disposal.  Affordability: housing is not adequate if its cost threatens or compromises the occupants’ enjoyment of other human rights.  Habitability: housing is not adequate if it does not guarantee physical safety or provide adequate space, as well as protection against the cold, damp, heat, rain, wind, other threats to health and structural hazards.  Accessibility: housing is not adequate if the specific needs of disadvantaged and marginalized groups are not taken into account.  Location: housing is not adequate if it is cut off from employment opportunities, health-care services, schools, childcare centres and other social facilities, or if located in polluted or dangerous areas.  Cultural adequacy: housing is not adequate if it does not respect and take into account the expression of cultural identity. • Protection against forced evictions. Protection against forced evictions is a key element of the right to adequate housing and is closely linked to security of tenure. Forced evictions are defined as the “permanent or temporary removal against their will of individuals, families and/or communities from the homes and/or land which they occupy, without the provision of, and access to, appropriate forms of legal or other protection.”2 According to the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), at least 2 million people in the world are forcibly evicted every year, while millions are threatened with forced evictions.3 2 General comment 7, which goes on to note that “the prohibition on forced evictions does not, however, apply to evictions carried out by force in accordance with the law and in conformity with the provisions of the International Covenants on Human Rights” (para. 4). 3 UN-Habitat, Global Report on Human Settlements 2007: Enhancing Urban Safety and Security (Nairobi, 2007). 5 Forced evictions are carried out in a variety of circumstances and for a variety of reasons, for instance, to make way for development and infrastructure projects, urban redevelopment or city beautification, or prestigious international events, as a result of conflicts over land rights, armed conflicts or societal patterns of discrimination. Forced evictions tend to be violent and disproportionately affect the poor, who often suffer further human rights violations as a result. In many instances, forced evictions compound the problem they were ostensibly aimed at solving. Regardless of their cause, forced evictions may be considered a gross violation of human rights and a prima facie violation of the right to adequate housing. Large-scale evictions can in general be justified only in the most exceptional circumstances and only if they take place in accordance with the relevant principles of international law. Safeguards in the case of evictions If eviction may be justifiable, because the tenant persistently fails to pay rent or damages the property without reasonable cause, the State must ensure that it is carried out in a lawful, reasonable and proportional manner, and in accordance with international law. Effective legal recourses and remedies should be available to those who are evicted, including adequate compensation for any real or personal property affected by the eviction. Evictions should not result in individuals becoming homeless or vulnerable to further human rights violations. In general, international human rights law requires Governments to explore all feasible alternatives before carrying out any eviction, so as to avoid, or at least minimize, the need to use force. When evictions are carried out as a last resort, those affected must be afforded effective procedural guarantees, which may have a deterrent effect on planned evictions. These include:  An opportunity for genuine consultation;  Adequate and reasonable notice;  Availability of information on the proposed eviction in reasonable time;  Presence of Government officials or their representatives during an eviction; 6  Proper identification of persons carrying out the eviction;  Prohibition on carrying out evictions in bad weather or at night;  Availability of legal remedies;  Availability of legal aid to those in need to be able to seek judicial redress. Other international human rights treaties that recognize the right to adequate housing • The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (art. 21) • The International Labour Organization’s 1962 Convention No. 117 concerning Basic Aims and Standards of Social Policy (art. 5 (2)) • The 1965 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (art. 5 (e)(iii)) • The 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (art. 17) • The 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (arts. 14 (2) and 15 (2)) • The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (arts. 16 (1) and 27 (3)) • The International Labour Organization’s 1989 Convention No. 169 concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (arts. 14, 16 and 17) • The 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (art. 43 (1)(d)) • The 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (arts. 9 and 28)

Thursday, July 5, 2012

Lombard Criminal Damages and Losses for the Estate of Mr. Roberto Hung Juris Doctor & Family

Lombard Criminal Disaster Damages and Losses Estate of Mr. Roberto Hung Juris Doctor, Daughter Gardenia C. Hung-Wittler, Nathan S. Wittler At 502 South Westmore-Meyers Road and Washington Boulevard, in the Village of Lombard, District 5, York Township, Du Page County, Illinois 60148-3028 USA.

Illinois Heinous Hate Crimes Commission, Illinois Victims of Crimes Division

U.S. Department of Justice, Office For Victims of Heinous Hate Crimes,

Office For Violence Against Women, High Crimes Division, Abuse of Human Rights in Housing Under The Law


Living Room

Toshiba Wide Screen Television, 44-inch Screen

Panasonic DVD Carousel Player

Video Rewinders

Olympia Camera owned by Nathan Scott Wittler


Camera Tripod

U.S. Portable Lawn Chair

Golf Club Putting

Aquarium 25-Gallon Table Top Tank

Green Marble Table

Antique Louis XVI Furniture Winged Chair

Queen Sofa-Bed

Love Seat

Teak Furniture

Electric Foot Basin

Hair Dryer

San Francisco Glass Picture Frame

Tulips Glass Picture Frame

Dining Room

Teak Wooden Dining Room Set for 8 Person with Chairs

Teak China Cabinet

(2) Two Lace Table Covers

Teak Desk Top with Shelves

Two (2) Computer Desk Tops

Kenmore Sewing Machine Portable

Peacock Embroidery Silk Threads in a Chinese Cookies Tin

Embroidery Threads in a Chinese Cookies Tin

Quilting Templates

Kitchen Appliances and Electronics


Hitachi Automatic Bread Maker

KitchenAid Deluxe Mixer with (2) Two Aluminum Bowls, Pasta Accessories, Sausage-Making Accessories, Bread-Making Accessories.

Braun Food Processor with Baking Accessories, Blades, Food Processing Accessories, etc.

Cuisinart Food Processor

Delicatessen Meat Slicer

Potato Spiral Peeler

Braun Coffee Maker

Ice Cream Maker

Portable Buffet Roaster/Server from Sears

Pampered Chef Baking Containers, Glass Bowls, Bread Pans, Pizza Pans, Cooking Utensils, Wooden Spoons, Cooking Supplies, etc.

Spice Rack

French Provence Spices

Chef’s Butcher Block Rolling Cart

(2) Kenmore Deluxe Dishwasher and Regular Dishwasher

New Kenmore Deluxe Stove with Self-Cleaning Oven from Sears in Oak Brook, Illinois USA

Kitchen Butcher Block Knife Set

Porcelain Coffee Mugs

Antique Copper Baking Pans from New England

Master Bedroom

Queen Teak Bedroom Set with Two Nightstands and Touch Lamps

Teak Vanity Tri-Fold Mirror Dresser, Dresser Drawers

Queen Quilted Cover Collection

Bedroom Linen in the Closet

Guest Bedroom/Office for Communications, Languages & Culture, Inc.

Registered Software Stolen and Taken by the Village of Lombard and Thieves

Deluxe Graphics Software

WordPerfect Software

Business Marketing Software

Microsoft Windows Software

Packard Tower Computers Damaged

IBM PS2 Personal Computer

Sony Windows Me Software Computer

Hewlett-Packard Deluxe Office/Fax/Scanner/Printer

Office Supplies, Printing,

Photo Shop Software

Foreign Languages Software with Accents

Second Floor


Antique Roll Top Desktop belonging to Mr. Roberto Hung Juris Doctor

Second Floor


Packard Tower Computer

Computer Table Top


Ice Cream Maker

Food Processor

Coffee Maker

New Refrigerator

Porcelain Dishes


Automatic Rotisserie Roaster

Kitchen Supplies

Glass Servers

Salad Servers


Expresso Coffee Makers



Electric Tooth Brushes

(3) Three First Aid Kits

Second Floor

Kitchen Pans

Baking Pans


Single Bedroom Set with Two (2) Nightstand, Vanity Dresser, Dresser Drawers

File Cabinets

Bedroom Cover Set

Telephones, Portable, Mobile, Remote, Walkie-Talkie Set

Living Room

Antique Louis XVI Sofa with Two Winged Chairs, 3-Table Set

Large Television

Video Cassette Recorder

Video Rewinder

Portable Boom Radios



Bathroom Cleaning Supplies


Food Supplies

Glass Decanters

Cooking Spices

Cabinet with Pampered Chef Spices

Pampered Chef Table Cloth Cover


Baking pans, glassware, pie molds

Stairs Closet

Appliances for Vegetable Juice Maker

Vegetable/Fruit Dehydrator

Microwave Oven

Portable Electric Oven


Deluxe Sears Cardio-Vascular Walking Treadmill

New Kenmore Washer/Dryer Set

Montgomery Ward Washer/Dryer Portable

Kenmore Deluxe Dishwasher

Oven Master Roaster

Glassware for Bar Downstairs

Copper Trays

Silver Trays

Picnic Basket

Christmas Tree 6-Foot with Antique Ornaments

Glass Ornaments from Berlin, Germany Christkindlemarket

Sears Kenmore Buffet Server

Library Books

School Books

Camping Tent


Wedding Albums

Porch and Wood Shed

U.S. Flag Large with Wooden Post

Wooden Picnic Table with Canvas Umbrella, Two Chairs

Toro Snow Blower Purchased by Mr. Roberto Hung in Lombard, Westmore-Meyers Road

Sears Gas Lawn Mower

Sears Deluxe Stratton-Briggs Lawn Mower with Large Bag

Home and Gardening Supplies, Plant Food, Seeds, Flower Baskets

Automated Jack for Flat Tires

Two-Car Garage

(12) Twelve Motor Vehicles, including 2003 Derbi Boulevard 150 CC Motorcycle

Mitsubishi Galant 4-Door Sedan with New Tires, Quaker State Oil Supplies, Deluxe Flat Repair Kit

Deluxe Cardio-Vascular Treadmill

Personal Fashion Clothing, Furs, Fur Hats, Hat Boxes, Leather Gloves

Winter Shoes, High Snow Boots from Neiman Marcus, Shoes, Golf Shoes